Q2. Sir George Biddell Airy
The initial clues seem to place us in the town of Colchester, in the county of Essex. According to English heritage, there does seem to an Augustinian priory there, St Botolph's, which was built c 1100. It was badly damaged by cannon fire during the English civil war and the seige of 1648. Work on Colchester castle, which according to some references, was built upon the site of the Temple of Claudius, started c 1076. The dimensions of the keep are given as one hundred and fifty two feet by one hundred and twelve feet, giving an area of seventeen thousand and twenty four square feet. This makes it one of the largest in Europe.
The quote about "Britain is/a world by itself" appears to originate with Shakespeare and can be found in his play 'Cymbeline'. The lines containing it are spoken by a character called Clotten:
"There be many Caesars,
Ere such another Julius. Britain is
A world by itself; and we will nothing pay
For wearing our own noses. "